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Test Definitions


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3/4 Digit Resolution
  If you had difficulty getting an answer to what the "half" means in a 3 1/2 digit resolution, this is even more difficult. The best that we can tell, the front digit of the meter can take on values from 0 through 3, thereby doubling the count (resolution) from say 1.999 - for 1/2 digit, to 3.999 - for 3/4 digit. This is the way we have seen it used, but we have not found any original work to justify this conclusion. (Everyone knows that if you double 1/2 you do not get 3/4, unless of course you are talking about measurement technologists concerned with high accuracy!)
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
3D Time of Flight
  An imaging mode in which the gray scale or color value of the image pixel represents the depth of the feature within the part.
Source: Sonoscan
404 Not Found
  404 is an HTTP status code. The web server generates this message saying that the page you requested was not found or no longer exists.
Source: HostPulse
4B/5B Encoding
  The encoding method used for encoding 4-bit data bytes to 5-bit Transmission Characters. Data bytes are converted to Transmission Characters to improve the physical signal such that the following benefits are achieved: bit synchronization is more easily achieved, design of receivers and transmitters is simplified, error detection is improved, and control characters (i.e., the Special Character) can be distinguished from data characters. 4B/5B encoding prevent symbols with more than three 0's in succession from occurring in the stream. The encoding advantage is that it can use NRZ-I encoding without losing synchronization in case of long null sequences. The disadvantage is the 25% overhead due to conversion from 4 to 5 bits. Of the 32 different characters that the 4B/5B code can generate, only 16 characters are needed to transfer the payload, the remaining 16 are used as control characters.
Source: Interface Bus
5B/6B Encoding
  This encoding method used in 100Base-VG. Of the 32 six bit symbols, 20 are DC balanced. The remaining 12 six bit symbols are defined by two groups of 12 symbols with 2 ones, and 4 ones [to allow for unbalanced symbols to be transmitted without polarization]. This approach provides a balanced bit sequence comprising ones and zeroes, permitting a DC balanced transmission.
Source: Interface Bus
7 Tools of QC
  Data gathering and analysis tools used for kaizen activities originally by QC Circles. They are 1) check sheets, 2) cause and effect diagrams, 3) Pareto diagrams, 4) histograms, 5) graphs, 6) scatter diagrams, and 7) broken line graphs.
Source: Kaizen and Lean Manufacturing Consulting
7 Wastes of Production
  There are 7 types of waste that describe all wasteful activity in a production environment. Elimination of the 7 wastes leads to improved profits. The 7 wastes are 1) Overproduction, Transportation, Motion, Waiting, Processing, Inventory, and Defects.
Source: Kaizen and Lean Manufacturing Consulting
8b/10b Encoding
  A scheme for encoding signals with an embedded clock. The encoding serves two purposes. First, it ensures that there are enough transitions in the data stream for clock recovery and second, that the number of 0s and 1s is matched, maintaining DC balance in AC-coupled systems.
Source: National Instruments
Abbe Error
  Additional linear off-axis error introduced through amplification of tilt and wobble with a long moment arm. This type of error occurs when the point under measurement is a relatively long distance from the axis of motion. For example, XYZ stages incorporating an angle bracket between the moving elements will exhibit measurable Abbe error since the Z stage is significantly displaced above the X and Y axes. It appears as runout, but unlike true runout, Abbe error can be minimized by reducing the lever arm.
Source: FRT of America
Abbe Number
  The ratio of refractivity to dispersion in an optical medium. Specifically: (nd-1)/(nF-nC), where n is the index of refraction for the Fraunhofer d, F and C lines, respectively.
Source: JML Optical Industries, Inc.
Abbe's Principle
  To ensure the correctness of a linear measurement, the length measured and the reference scale must lie parallel to each other.
Source: Carl Zeiss
Abbreviated Test Language for All Systems
  (ATLAS) - A standard test programming language developed by the IEEE and maintained under various standards, such as IEE Std. 416 and 716. ATLAS 2000 also exists.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
  An optical defect resulting from design or fabrication error, e.g., coma, distortion, curvature of field that prevents the lens from achieving precise focus.
Source: JML Optical
  Overshoot or undershoot in a waveform.
Source: Tektronix
Abnormality Management
  Being able to see and quickly take action to correct abnormalities (any straying from Standard Work). This is the goal of standardization and visual management. Continuous waste elimination and problem solving through kaizen are only possible when the abnormalities are visible.
Source: Kaizen and Lean Manufacturing Consulting
Absolute Accuracy
  A measure of the uncertainty of an instrument reading compared to that of a primary standard traceable to NJST. [National Institute of Standards and Technology]
Source: Vibration and Test
Absolute leakage
  The total current that flows in the circuit (wires) during an AC HiPot test. It is the absolute value of the vector sum of the ohmic and reactive (resistive and capacitive) current that flows in the circuit. An ideal cable has absolute current equal to the reacitive current during a hipot test. This current is a function of the voltage, frequency and capacitance of the circuit and can not be easily determined for leakage limit setting.
Source: CableTest
Absolute Zero
  Under the absolute, or Kelvin, scale of temperature (which was invented by the British mathematician and physicist William Thomas, first Baron of Kelvin), 0 K (corresponding to -273 degrees C) is the coldest possible temperature and is known as absolute zero.
Source: Maxfield & Montrose Interactive Inc.
  Material, often ferrite, which is capable of absorbing HF radiation, used with Electromagnetic Compatibility
Source: Schaffner EMC
  Loss or dissipation of energy as it travels through a medium, Example: radio waves lose some of their energy as they travel through the atmosphere.
Source: Twisted Pair
AC Coupling
  Circuit that passes an AC signal while blocking a DC voltage.
Source: Twisted Pair

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