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Test Definitions

  

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Hacker
  A person or group that gains access to secured computer networks for pleasure or challenge, sometimes to steal information or to sabotage the system.
Source: Wireless Week
 
Half Digit Resolution
  (1/2 digit) - The 1/2 or "half" in describing the resolution of an instrument to make it 3 1/2 digit or 4 1/2 has a mysterious origin. Conventional wisdom has it that it refers to the front digit, which is either a "1", "-1" or OFF and the implementation of that front digit did not require the use of all 8 lines of a 7-segment digital display, but it only takes 4 lines, or half. (It does take 8 lines to implement a 7-segment digit display.) This still leaves the mystery of the 3/4 digit display as in a 3 3/4 digit voltmeter. See the definition of 3/4 digit resolution.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
 
Half Duplex
  The radio term applied to transmissions which allow two-way communications over a single frequency through the use of a push-to-talk button that opens and closes the communication pathway over that frequency.
Source: Wireless Week
 
Half Power Point
  A frequency at which the power is 50% of maximum. This corresponds to 70.7% of maximum current or voltage.
Source: Twisted Pair
 
Half Wave Rectifier
  A diode rectifier that converts AC to pulsating DC by eliminating either the negative or the positive alternation of each input AC cycle.
Source: Twisted Pair
 
Hall Effect
  The Hall effect is the development of a voltage across a sheet of conductor when current is flowing and the conductor is placed in a magnetic field.
Source: Lake Shore Cryotronics
 
  Hall Effect devices are temperature-compensated magnetic field sensing products. They are best suited for extremely harsh environments for sensing motion such as under-the-hood automotive and heavy industrial machinery applications, including robotics where identification of objects and or counting rotations of gears is required. The basic Hall element relies on a magnetic field in order to sense motion. The principle is based on the Hall effect, discovered more than 100 years ago by Edwin Herbert Hall. This effect is the small electrical potential created when a stationary magnetic field is placed perpendicular to a current-carrying conductor.
Source: Optek Technologies
 
Hamming Error Detection and Error Correction Codes
  Utilizes several parity bits so that not only the existance of a faulty transmission, but also the actual faulty bit is identified. These are the first class of linear binary codes used for error correction in long-distance telephony.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
 
Hamming Window
  Named after its originator, the Hamming window is a Hanning window sitting on top of a small rectangular pedestal. Its function is similar, but has its first sidelobes 42 dB down, whereas the Hanning window's first sidelobes are only 32 dB down. Thus the Hamming has better selectivity for large signals, but it suffers from the disadvantage that the rest of the sidelobes are higher, and in fact fall off slowly at 20 dB per octave like those of the rectangular window. The Hamming window had some advantage in the days when FFT analyzers only had 50 dB or so of dynamic range, but nowadays it is essentially obsolete.
Source: Vibration Institute
 
Handlers
  Automated mechanisms used to carry circuit cards or components to and from the test station.
Source: A.T.E. Solutions, Inc.
 
Handoff
  The process occurring when a wireless network automatically switches a mobile call to an adjacent cell site.
Source: Wireless Week
 
Hand-off
  The process that occurs when a mobile user travels from one cell (terminating communications) to another cell (initiating communications) in a cellular network. With the exception of CDMA networks, hand-offs normally involve switching from one pair of frequency to another. Hand-off typically describes the ability of a wireless network to pass the network connection of a roaming device from one connection point to another, without dropping the network connection.
Source: Xilinx
 
Handover
  The procedures by which an mobile terminal, due to its own movement and/or due to changes in the radio environment not caused by own movement, replaces the current association and all established connections the mobile terminal has with one access point to another access point.
Source: Xilinx
 
Handshake
  The mechanism used to transfer bytes from the source handshake function of one device to the acceptor handshake function of another device. DAV, NRFD, and NDAC, three GPIB lines, are used in an interlocked fashion to signal the phases of the transfer, so that bytes can be sent asynchronously (for example, without a clock) at the speed of the slowest device. For more information about handshaking, refer to the ANSI/IEEE Standard 488.1-1987.
Source: National Instruments
 
Hanning Window
  The Hanning window, also called "Hanning weighting," is a digital manipulation of the sampled signal in an FFT analyzer which forces the beginning and ending samples of the time record to zero amplitude. This compensates for an inherent error in the FFT algorithm which would cause the energy at specific frequencies to be spread out rather than well defined in frequency. The Hanning window causes a distortion of the wave form used by the analyzer to calculate the spectrum, and this results in the measured levels being too low. When processing continuous data, this effect is compensated for, but an error is introduced if the Hanning window is used for transient data.
Source: Vibration Institute
 
Hard Fault
  A hard fault is a potential open or short circuit in the design modeling the effects of manufacturing defects on the network connects.
Source: ATE World
 
Hard Ground
  A connection to ground through a wire or other conductor that has an negligible resistance to ground.
Source: ESD Systems
 
Hard Hand-Off
  a break-before-make transfer of a mobile phone's link from one base station to another
Source: Test & Measurement World
 
Hard Intellectual Property
  (Hard IP) - A placed-and-routed block representing a function, such as microprocessor core, RAM, PLL, or ADC. Today's EDA tools cannot automatically place hard-IP blocks with good quality of return without the addition of a floorplanning operation.
Source: EDN Magazine
 
Hard Repair
  The process of using laser fusing to map a failing row or column of memory cells to a redundant row or column. See also soft repair.
Source: Mentor Graphics
 
Hardware Description Language
  (HDL) - Language used when designing logic. The most common HDLs in use today are Verilog and VHDL.
Source: Xilinx
 

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